The following questions are from the Sentence Rearrangement Pattern that are very popular in Verbal Ability for CAT. Make sure you go through these CAT Questions from Parajumbles to have an idea on how to solve these! If you would like to take these questions as a Quiz, head on here to take these questions in a test format, absolutely free.
A. Good writers use more verbs.
B. However, it is hard to write without verbs.
C. The reason is that if unnecessary words are reduced, the verb-percentage goes up as a mathematical necessity.
D. So “use verbs” is not really good advice; writers have to use verbs, and trying to add extra ones would not turn out well.
A. The French Revolution created a vision for a new moral universe: that sovereignty resides in nations; that a constitution and the rule of law govern politics; that people are equal and enjoy inalienable rights; and that church and state should be separate.
B. The French Revolution invented modern revolution —the idea that humans can transform the world according to a plan—and so has a central place in the study of the social sciences.
C. It ushered in modernity by destroying the foundations of the “Old Regime”—absolutist politics, legal inequality, a “feudal” economy (characterized by guilds, manorialism, and even serfdom), and an alliance of church and state.
D. That vision is enshrined in the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen of 1789, whose proclamation of “natural, imprescriptible, and inalienable” rights served as the model for the 1948 United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
A. During the 24-hour darkness of the austral autumn and winter, the South Pole Telescope operates nonstop under impeccable conditions for astronomy.
B. The atmosphere is thin (the pole is more than 9,300 feet above sea level, 9,000 of which are ice), stable (due to the absence of the heating and cooling effects of a rising and setting Sun) and the pole has some of the calmest winds on Earth, blowing almost always from the same direction.
C. “The South Pole has the harshest environment on Earth, but also the most benign,” says William Holzapfel, a University of California at Berkeley astrophysicist, the on-site lead researcher at the South Pole Telescope.
D. From an astronomer’s perspective, not until the Sun goes down and stays down—March through September— does the South Pole get “benign.”
A. As "operating systems", Latin and French outlived the strategic pre-eminence of Rome and France.
B. Nor will Chinese, Russian, or Indian culture soon shoulder aside the American version-high or low- whose draw is embodied by Harvard and Hollywood.
C. Once a standard exists, it tends to perpetuate itself-just like the dollar, for all its ups and downs will not soon yield to the Euro or the Renminbi.
D. By such measures, no other rival, not even China, comes close to America, whatever the country's many familiar failings and riches of the rising rest.
A. The oldest fossil grasses are just 70 million years old, although grass may have evolved a bit earlier than that.
B. There have been land plants for 465 million years, yet there were no flowers for over two-thirds of that time.
C. The equally-familiar grasses appeared even more recently.
D. Flowering plants only appeared in the middle of the dinosaur era.
A. Nevertheless, the focus of otherwise very different movements - from cultural feminism to environmentalism to radical jihadism - is fundamentally the same: moral regulation.
B. Identity politics constantly demands the creation of new identities and lifestyle groups, often hostile to one another.
C. The main beneficiary of this shift from explicit political clashes to new forms of culture war has been identity politics.
D. Many of the political battles of the past two decades have actually been battles over cultural values, be it marriage, family, sexuality, abortion, immigration, multiculturalism, Islam or the EU.
A. Patrilineal ownership of lands and the culture of dowry attached to it have turned daughters into bad debts.
B. The control of such castes on local politics aggravates masculine hubris.
C. The bigotry of our village culture and polity is intrinsically linked to a control of land and agriculture.
D. Land makes certain castes ‘kingly’ in rural communities.
A. The Cold War was underpinned by an understanding which allowed the US to maintain hegemony over the capitalist world and which gave the Soviet Union a regional sphere of influence in Eastern Europe.
B. The bloody upheavals and wars occurred not in Europe, America or Russia, but in Asia, Africa and the Middle East, and were either directly or indirectly a response to the experience of Western colonialism.
C. Despite the aggressive rhetoric of this era, the Cold War was a period of relative peace between hostile geopolitical blocs.
D. In retrospect, what was remarkable about the Cold War was the ability of most of the major players to manage their conflict.
A. The Mandate of Heaven indicated divine approval of a king’s right to rule.
B. In other words, the Mandate of Heaven gave divine ruling authority to kings that lived a moral life, administered justice, and protected the welfare of his people.
C. Whereas Medieval Europeans legitimized their ruling authority by the divine right of kings, Confucian societies used a similar concept called the Mandate of Heaven.
D. However, it differed from the divine right of kings in that Heaven’s endorsement depends upon the virtuous conduct of the ruler.
A. General Yi knew that the Ming dynasty was more powerful than Mongols were and judged that if he attacked, the Ming would likely invade Korea.
B. Upon his arrival in Kaesŏng, General Yi toppled the government through a military coup and in 1392 CE, he placed himself on the throne —ushering in the Chosŏn Kingdom.
C. Due to his prominence in 1388 CE, the anti-Ming (pro-Mongol) faction sent General Yi to expel a contingent of Ming troops stationed on the northern part of the Korean Peninsula.
D. Seeing the campaign as a potential disaster, General Yi turned his troops south towards the Koryŏ capital, Kaesŏng.
Elite American colleges are now widely suspected of admitting male applicants with lower grades, to even up the numbers.
B. At least in the rich world, that wasteful truth has been triumphantly overcome.
C. Stendhal once wrote that all geniuses who were born women were lost to the public good.
D. Yet, despite this monumental advance, much ability, both male and female, is wasted because of tenacious stereotypes.
A. Hate speech is characterized by a deliberate targeting of communities rather than beliefs.
B. What the management must seek to do is to not let political discussions and debates to descend into vituperative attacks and hate speech.
C. But such an association will be spurious, as questioning orthodoxy and conservatism is not tantamount to hate speech.
D. The student body's activism has been criticized by detractors and it has been sought to be associated with hate speech.
A. The main driving force of the British Empire’s global expansion was the pursuit of commercial interests.
B. That entailed helping the weaker side in order to promote a regional balance of power and preventing the rise of a regional power, or at least reducing its impact on British security and interests.
C. Creating a balance of power and fostering regional stability could help to realize commercial goals; hence these became the core of the British Empire’s strategy.
D. Britain put these practices to use in its continental policy for hundreds of years.
A. The crash in the Alps has launched a search for a solution to the problem of accessing the cockpit from outside if the plane has been commandeered from within.
B. Flight safety has so far focused on threats from the passenger side, and the 9/11 terror episode led to fortification of the cockpit.
C. But if they are in a position to act, pilots can override this mechanism.
D. In exceptional circumstances, such as an emergency affecting the pilot and the cockpit area, the crew can use a code that opens the cockpit door briefly, or it even opens automatically if the pilots are immobilized due to depressurization.
A. Indeed, Indian policy-planners find themselves in a predicament thanks to the continued monetary easing by some nations and the shrinkage in world trade.
B. In this context, a fund-starved country like India will do well to focus on foreign direct investment rather than get unduly worried about foreign institutional investment, which will have its ebb and flow depending on the environment outside..
C. With everyone waiting for the other to act first, the onus is definitely on the political bosses to devise quick solutions to accelerate the economy.
D. Given this ‘new normal’ kind of an environment, they will have to look at ways to protect the Indian economy from external vicissitudes.
A. Comments have the potential to turn a news website into a democratic polyphony.
B. But, there is also a danger of it descending to cacophony if readers do not express opinions in a language that behooves the requirements of a matured public sphere.
C. It can become a site for multiple concurrent debates, for registering dissent, for pursuing an idea and finally for building a polity of informed choices.
D. The role of the moderators is to retain the space for polyphony and reject voices that breed cacophony.
A. Delisting the content under the parameters of "the right to be forgotten" does not mean the information is taken down from the Internet, but that it's no longer readily available to the public through a simple search on an intermediary such as Google.
B. However, those who support this controversial legislation say people shouldn’t be unfairly dogged by inaccurate, irrelevant, or outdated information that turns up when their name is put into a search engine.
C. The Court of Justice of the European Union established a "right to be forgotten" in a landmark decision in May 2014, allowing Europeans to ask search engines to delist certain links from results they show based on searches for that person’s name.
D. A number of other countries, including Russia, have proposed their own versions of the right to be forgotten, which has led campaigners for freedom of expression to warn that such decisions could limit what content is readily available online in these countries.
A. But that would require a tough look at the economy, at the dearth of productivity, and at how it might be possible to restore conditions of growth. It would require serious investment, risk-taking, and nerve.
B. If those currently carping about the tax affairs of the rich really did care about raising tax revenues, they would concentrate on raising the volume of wealth that can be taxed.
C. The problem with the eagerness to recast economic problems, from a failure to cut the deficit to the continued inability to restore conditions of growth, as a moral issue and an erring on the part of selfish individuals who just aren’t giving enough back, leaves the real problems untouched.
D. These are not qualities today’s political class have in abundance. So, instead, they continue to project blame, singling out individuals for moral censure in the hope that they will increase their payments to the state.
A. A more vital, dynamic and inclusive form of democracy is generated as the risk of corruption reduces, election fever abates and attention to the common good increases.
B. As those who have been drafted are exposed to expert opinion, objective information and public debate, voting is not simply based on gut feel, but careful deliberation.
C. Renaissance states such as Venice and Florence experienced centuries of political stability by practicing democracy on the basis of sortition, or drafting by lot.
D. With sortition, everyone does not vote on an issue few understand, but a random sample of the population is drafted to come to grips with the problem, in order to take a sensible decision.
A. With vaccination, arguably our strongest and most cost-effective defense against infectious disease, urbanization is already presenting challenges.
B. It used to be the case that the one-in-five children missing out on a full course of even the most basic vaccines lived in remote rural communities.
C. Without strong health systems in place, the higher the population density the more difficult it becomes to prevent and control outbreaks, and not just because of the increased risk of contagion.
D. Today, we’re increasingly discovering that many of these hardest-to-reach children are in marginalized urban communities – right in the heart of cities, often hiding in plain sight.
A. Not only can jellyfish withstand the impact of climate change, they also have the capacity to accelerate it.
B. At the same time, jellyfish also consume vast amounts of plankton, which are a major means of taking carbon dioxide out of the atmosphere and oceans. Their loss can hasten climate change.
C. Jellyfish are better prepared than other marine life for the changing ocean environment, such as warmer temperatures, salinity changes, ocean acidification and pollution.
D. They release carbon-rich feces and mucus that bacteria prefer to use for respiration, turning these bacteria into carbon dioxide factories.
A. Athletes may not be role models, but they’re certainly digital lightning rods.
B. Nearly twenty years ago athletes did as they pleased, only entering the public news scope if an off-the-court/field dustup was so monumental that the nightly news couldn’t afford not to cover it.
C. Athletes might want the ability to make millions while still being able to crack off-kilter and slightly offensive jokes without seeing the number of zeroes in their paycheck affected, but that’s not how it works.
D. Today, thanks to the advancement in social media with tools like Facebook and Twitter, athletes have signed up for a 24 hour a day news conference.
A. According to scientists from NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, the current melting of ice in Greenland is already causing the tilt to change at a rate of approximately 2.6 cm each year.
B. While a natural event such as this could bring about major changes to the climate, some scientists are warning that there is a possibility for reverse feedback.
C. The Earth's orbital tilt is said to vary between 22 and 25 degrees roughly every 41,000 years.
D. In other words, instead of an orbital tilt causing climate change, current changes in climate could end up causing changes in the Earth's axial tilt.
A. One of the beauties of Leo Tolstoy’s novel 'War and Peace' is that it does not end when the war ends.
B. It ends instead when the hero gets married, and settles down to a life of routine, even boredom.
C. In conveying this ceaseless ebb and flow of life, Tolstoy captures its very essence.
D. Concluding it at the moment of heroic drama would have destroyed the integrity of the novel.
A. What Darwin discovered on the Galapagos Isles was not the idea that species evolved, or even a possible model for how that evolution might have taken place.
B. His ability to see this fact, and exploit it so brilliantly, is why we remember Charles Darwin today.
C. Darwin ultimately owes the near-instant success of his theory to the fact that the islands of the Galapagos made such perfect petri dishes for generating that evidence.
D. Rather, what he found was a naturally occurring laboratory, one exquisitely shaped to allow the study of speciation and to make his model the first supported by real evidence.
A. This burnt off many living forms and it took a long time before oxygen- using life forms started flourishing about 500 million years later.
B. Some of this was ‘fixed’ by iron and organic matter of earth, but the rest soon led the ‘poisonous’ gas, oxygen, attain levels of about 20 per cent in the air.
C. Those days, the earth was rich in a set of microbes called cyanobacteria, which started the early events of photosynthesis, wherein the microbe used CO2 for energy production and emitted oxygen gas as the waste material.
D. One such massive upheaval of the earth’s atmosphere occurred about 2.4 billion years ago, during what is called the “Oxygen Catastrophe”.
E. Cyanobacteria reproduced very fast (doubling every 30 minutes), leading to vast amounts of oxygen in the atmosphere.
A. As people turned to farming, they began to live in fixed settlements, which became small towns.
B. Their labors bore fruit; surplus food freed some of the population from farming.
C. In about 5000 BC, farmers moved down into the fertile river valleys of Mesopotamia, and built dykes and ditches to irrigate the arid land.
D. The cultivation of plants, such as wheat and barley, and the domestication of animals, such as sheep, goats and cattle, began in the Near East in about 8500 BC.
The Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) crossed an important milestone with the successful launch of weather satellite INSAT-3DR using a Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV) equipped with the indigenous cryogenic upper stage.
A. The September 8 GSLV launch marks the third consecutive success; the fact that it is the first operational flight by the GSLV carrying the indigenous cryogenic upper stage is confirmation that India now belongs to the elite club of countries that have mastered the cryogenic technology.
B. Likewise, igniting a cryogenic fuel and sustaining the combustion for a prolonged period is a daunting task.
C. Maintaining structural and thermal integrity of the engine at very high temperatures during combustion just a few centimeters away from – 250° C, a temperature at which materials behave very differently, is a huge challenge.
D. This marks a departure from the long history of failures with the GSLV; except for the first, every launch of the Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV), the workhorse of ISRO, has been a success.
The Thursday launch had fully utilized the maximum payload carrying capacity of the GSLV-Mk II by carrying the heaviest satellite (2,211 kg) ever from Indian soil.
A. Not long after their victory, the Greeks began to think that they would never stack up to the glories of the past.
B. Throughout antiquity, those warriors, especially the Marathonomachai, who fought and defeated the Persian troops in the 490 BCE Battle of Marathon, would be revered as Athens’ Greatest Generation.
C. Even in the mid-fifth century BCE, Athenians were already looking back with longing.
D. A few decades earlier, Athenian citizen-soldiers had helped to rout the Persian invaders of Greece.
A. Interestingly, most creatures, including humans, vocalise using softer organs and membranes that tend to decompose instead of entering into the fossil record.
B. The family of duck-billed dinosaurs known as Parasaurolophus had been at the centre of the paleo-acoustic conversation.
C. They are herbivorous creatures named for the shape of their mouths, but better known for the large, bony crests arching over the back of their heads like a single blunted horn.
D. Parasaurolophus is a rarity in this regard, as no other animal has been known to dedicate so much hard, fossil-friendly tissue to making noise.
A. Even if the Court is not motivated by an anti-African agenda, it is no less concerning that it acts, without fail, in concert with its North Atlantic backers.
B. It simply reproduces a Western narrative of Russian aggression that justifies NATO’s largest build-up of military forces in eastern Europe since the Cold War.
C. That military intervention in Africa by former colonial powers has been followed, almost without exception, by the International Criminal Court’s juridical intervention, leaves Africans understandably suspicious.
D. And the Court’s recent decision to launch an investigation into South Ossetia—its first extra-African investigation—is but of a piece with its earlier interventions, doing little to assuage that concern.
A. Despite the comet taking 133 years to pass by the Earth, the meteor shower happens every year as a result of the earth moving through the trail of the comet's orbit.
B. Like any other comet, Swift-Tuttle follows a steep incline when compared to planets in the solar system, gathering a lot of speed as it dives down into the solar system to get close to the sun and out again.
C. This link between the comet and the meteor shower was discovered within three years of the comet's discovery-- by Giovanni Schiaparelli in 1865.
D. The spectacular Perseid meteor shower that is witnessed every August, peaking in mid-August, is, in fact, created by the dust and debris left by the Swift Tuttle.
A. Every time financial speculation creates a crisis, governments are expected to tax their citizens and use that money to save banks and financial institutions.
B. Liberalism insisted on the separation of the state and the market, and decried government interference in markets.
C. Even if one argues, as some do, that liberal capitalism was always to some extent state capitalism, this signifies a major shift.
D. Neo-liberalism believes that governments should intervene in markets — but only on the side of banks, finance capitalists and lending agencies.
A. Had the world’s leading central banks not provided emergency liquidity back in 2008, the global economy would have faced meltdown.
B. But what started as a short-term emergency painkiller then morphed into a prolonged monetary coma.
C. After the Lehman crisis, low rates and quantitative easing were needed.
D. Payment systems would have failed, sparking panic, economic torpor and civil unrest.
A. If you’ve reached the point where you’re ready to hand censorship tools to an authoritarian regime in the name of making the world more open and connected, it’s time to ask what mission you’re really serving.
B. For example: Facebook in 2016 secretly built a censorship tool, presumably to pave the way for future entry into China.
C. When your company’s ends are as grand as “bringing the world closer together” or “accelerating the advent of sustainable transport,” it becomes pretty easy to justify unsavory means.
D. According to reporting by the New York Times’ Mike Isaac, Zuckerberg responded to employees’ concern by assuring them, “It’s better for Facebook to be a part of enabling conversation, even if it’s not yet the full conversation.”
A. As that segment of ocean flow, known as the Gulf Stream, pushes north, it cools and becomes denser and eventually sinks, forming the so-called deepwater that flows back southward along the ocean floor toward Antarctica.
B. The warm, salty waters of the tropical Atlantic cruise northward along the eastern coast of the United States before darting toward northwestern Europe.
C. It also determines several climatic features, such as the latitude at which a key tropical rain belt is located, which impacts water supplies, precipitation for agriculture and the health of tropical ecosystems.
D. This cycle, called the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation, plays a key role in moving heat around the planet as well as nutrients throughout the ocean.
A. These chemicals break an essential part of a bacterial cell, but they usually break the same part of human cells too.
B. This is the key to antibiotic function: exploiting the fact that bacteria are similar to human cells without being identical.
C. This makes medical antiseptics terrible antibiotics, as their use in high concentrations may cause tissue damage or slow wound healing.
D. Luckily, sometimes there are bacterial parts not found in humans, or if they are, they are very different.
E. It’s relatively easy to find new antiseptics, which can kill microbes on the skin and the surface of tissues.
A. But when it feels other ants walking on its back, the ant simply stays put.
B. When an ant on the march comes to a gap in its path, it slows down.
C. In this way, the ants build a bridge long enough to span whatever gap is in front of them.
D. The process repeats as the next ant in line slows, gets trampled and freezes in place.
E. The rest of the colony, still barreling along at 12 centimeters per second, comes trampling over its back.
A. With his iconic painting, Margritte showed how art can change our view of this world and give us a fresh opportunity to attempt to define the indefinable.
B. Magritte, who considered himself a thinker who communicated through paint, wanted to prove that images could equal words in the expression of consciousness.
C. In painting this, Margritte was inspired by the definition of a poem by popular literary figures André Breton and Paul Éluard, who declared that “Poetry is a pipe”.
D. One of René Magritte’s most famous paintings, “The Treachery of Images,” features an image of a tobacco pipe with the words “This is not a pipe” underneath it.
A. Hopelessness, exhaustion and dwindling control over national economic life are the themes of politics all across the world.
B. As a result, states have been forced to shed social commitments in order to reinvent themselves as custodians of the market.
C. This has drastically diminished national political authority in both real and symbolic ways.
D. The destruction of state authority over capital has been the clear-cut objective of the financial revolution that defines our present era.
A. As elephants trumpet, the high-frequency vibrations of their massive vocal chords reach the ears of other elephants within a mile.
B. This is especially useful in the jungle, where dense vegetation rapidly degrades auditory information, though not seismic cues.
C. A two-tiered communication model based on hearing and feeling provides an effective way of sending messages to nearby herd members as well as more distant rival herds.
D. Remarkably, the low frequencies travel through the ground to be picked up by the extremely sensitive feet of elephants up to six miles away.
A. Tatar was the common name for Turkic-speaking, semi-nomadic people living on or around the immense steppes of the Eurasian continent.
B. Duke Vytautas welcomed them. In return, the Tatars provided their new country, and later Poland, with military assistance against Tamerlane.
C. After the dissolution of the Mongol empire, a group of Muslim Tatars, fleeing the Turko-Mongol ruler Tamerlane, asked the Christian grand duke of Lithuania for asylum.
D. John III Sobieski, the king of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, might not have won the Battle of Vienna were it not for the help of his country’s Sunni Muslim Tatars.
A. The reader's mind naturally seeks to complete the shapes, and in doing so, it slows down the reading process and improves memory.
B. Based on this idea, a new font, Sans Forgetica, has been created by psychology and design researchers at RMIT University in Melbourne.
C. Sans Forgetica is sleek and back-slanted with intermittent gaps in each letter, which serve as a simple puzzle for the reader.
D. People remember things better when their brains have to overcome minor obstacles while processing information.
A. A drop in household consumption due to the rise in private debt was a key driver of the recession in the U.S.
B. Indeed, the lack of regulatory control over the growth in credit as well as the flow of credit into real estate was the issue.
C. A crucial aspect of the 2008 financial crisis was the build-up of debt in households and in non-financial firms.
D. This, however, is not to negate the view that regulatory failure was the principal cause of the crisis.
A. More recently, the concentration of a few dominant players in many industries, along with the decline of labor unions, has raised the issue of monopsony once again.
B. Monopsony power was a key feature of the company towns that helped define the Industrial Revolution, since everybody served one employer in most of these towns.
C. In the labor market context, this means that negotiating ability is tilted toward corporations, making it difficult for workers to push for higher pay.
D. Monopsony is a situation wherein there are many providers of a product in the market but only one dominant buyer, who holds all the cards and can drive prices down.
A. Studies reveal that Martian brines today could hold higher concentrations of oxygen than were present on Earth about 2.4 billion years ago, when the first landmass emerged on Earth.
B. Although Mars is today a freeze-dried desert, it possesses abundant reserves of subsurface water ice, as well as some amount of liquid water in the form of brines.
C. These pools of salty liquid can capture even meager amounts of oxygen from the Mars’ atmosphere, creating a reservoir that microbes might metabolically utilize.
D. The brines’ high salt content lowers the temperature at which they freeze, allowing them to remain liquid even on the Red Planet's frigid surface.
A. In 17th-century Amsterdam, it was highly common for the guilds to commission portraits of themselves wearing their uniforms and holding weapons.
B. It was Rembrandt’s riveting interplay of light, motion, texture and expression transformed a commonplace commission into a masterwork.
C. Its status and critical acclaim, though, have little to do with its subject matter: a civic-guard group tasked with keeping watch on the city walls.
D. The painting Militia Company of District II Under the Command of Captain Frans Banninck Cocq, better-known as The Night Watch, is probably Rembrandt’s most famous work.
A. When the perceived cost of losing is sufficiently high, politicians may be tempted to abandon forbearance and play constitutional hardball.
B. When parties view one another as mortal enemies, the stakes of political competition heighten dramatically.
C. Such behavior, in turn, might further undermine mutual toleration, reinforcing the false belief that political rivals pose a dangerous threat.
D. Losing ceases to be a routine and accepted part of the political process and instead becomes a full-blown catastrophe.
A. The quest to define units of measurement using constants of nature goes back to the creation of the metric system during the French Revolution.
B. It was a utopian project, with its creators imagining that a shared system of weights and measures would unite the world, allowing for the free exchange of goods and information.
C. The metric system was created with the intention of liberating the common man and woman from the confusing and inconsistent weights and measures of the old regime.
D. At this time, the ideology of liberty, equality, fraternity was embraced not just by revolutionaries, but by scientists as well.
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