The following questions are from the Sentence Elimination Pattern that are very popular in Verbal Ability for CAT. Sentence Elimination questions often feature in the CAT. Given 4 options, you are asked to choose the one that does not fit in. The other three sentences will make a cogent paragraph. Let us look at some examples below. Make sure you go through these CAT Questions from Sentence Elimination to have an idea on how to solve these! If you would like to take these questions as a Quiz, head on here to take these questions in a test format, absolutely free.
A. By Ptolemy V’s reign in 205 BC , Egypt was in open revolt and the Rosetta stone was one of many that Ptolemy commissioned as a piece of political propaganda in 196 BC, to state publicly his claim to be the rightful pharaoh of Egypt.
B. These Greek rulers could neither speak the language of the people nor read hieroglyphs, and this fuelled resentment amongst the population.
C. Beginning with the conquest of Alexander the Great in 332 BC, Greek was the language of the governing elite in Egypt.
D. Without the Rosetta stone, we would know nothing of the ancient Egyptians, and the details of their three thousand years of history would remain a mystery.
A. You will know that it has because you will start experiencing aha moments with respect to that problem.
B. Once you admit that your unconscious mind is the source of whatever brilliance you possess, you can take steps to extract the maximum possible benefit from your association with it.
C. What you must instead do is interest your unconscious mind in working on a problem by working on it with your conscious mind
D. What you will quickly discover is that it can’t be ordered about.
A. Cognitive science, however, tells us that students need to develop these different ways of thinking by means of extended, focused mental effort.
B. NO matter what happens in the relatively brief period students spend in the classroom, there is not enough time to develop the long-term memory structures required for subject mastery.
C. A traditional science instructor concentrates on teaching factual knowledge, with the implicit assumption that expert-like ways of thinking about the subject are already present.
D. To ensure that the necessary extended effort is made, teachers need to engage students in thinking deeply about the subject at an appropriate level, monitor that thinking and guide it to be more expert-like.
A. This is nothing remotely like "nature fighting back." This is merely nature operating exactly the way we know it operates, the way it has been operating here for some three and a half billion years
B. Very simply, all too often we've acted as though we could make these small, fast breeding creatures extinct down to the very last member, the way we might do with elephants or pandas
C. We can say, "Yes, it's true that we drive a couple hundred species to extinction every day, but there are tens of millions --hundreds of millions--between us and catastrophe."
D. But of course this constitutes a fundamental misunderstanding of biological realities. What we've done in actual fact is make ourselves the chief agent of natural selection in these enemy species.
A. What we call “fundamentalism” has always existed in a symbiotic relationship with a secularization that is experienced as cruel, violent and invasive.
B. Historically, wherever secular governments were established to separate religion and politics, a counter-cultural movement developed in response, determined to bring religion back into public life.
C. In the developing world, secularization usually came with colonial rule; it was hence seen as a foreign import and rejected as profoundly unnatural.
D. All too often an aggressive secularism has pushed religion into a violent riposte.
A. In the entire body of Harappan and other Indus art and sculpture there are no monuments erected to glorify warfare and no depictions of war or conquered enemies.
B. It is speculated that the rulers might have been wealthy merchants, or powerful landlords or spiritual leaders, who showed their power and status through the use of seals and fine jewelry.
C. Decorated with animal motifs, many of the seals, the most commonly found objects in Harappan cities, are inscribed with short pieces of the Indus script.
D. It appears that the Harappan and other Indus rulers governed their cities through the control of trade and religion, not by military might.
A. Besides generating buzz, a season-based reality show does as well as a top-five show in terms of viewership.
B. The key, then, is for channels to find bankable reality formats and milk them till the cows come home.
C. Then again, they have realized that the easier way to gain ad revenue to cover costs is by luring advertisers to a fail-proof, steady-TRP format like reality TV.
D. The nearly 15% year-on-year rise in production cost levels for reality shows has networks rattled.
A. In China, for example, World Bank money has not been so important quantitatively, yet the Chinese generally credit the bank for having helpful blueprints and information.
B. While most of US$800 billion invested in infrastructure in developing countries each year comes from domestic sources, the provision of infrastructure financing by multilateral development institutions globally is important.
C. By contrast, their greatest failures have come from funding grandiose projects that benefit the current elite, but do not properly balance environmental, social, and development priorities.
D. Multilateral development institutions have had their most consistent success when they serve as “knowledge” banks, helping to share experience, best practices, and technical knowledge across regions.
A. Forecasts say that in just two years, the total quantum of e-waste generated around the world will be 50 million tonnes.
B. In China, for instance, 73.9 million computers, 0.25 billion mobile phones and 56.6 million televisions were sold in 2011.
C. Close to 90 per cent of the world’s electronic waste — worth nearly $19 billion — is illegally traded or dumped each year, to destinations half way across the world.
D. While Europe and North America are by far the largest producers of e-waste, Asia’s cities are fast catching up as consumers of electronic goods and as generators of e-waste.
A. There is a special intimacy to poetry because, in this idea of the art, the medium is not an expert's body, as when one goes to the ballet: in poetry, the medium is the audience's body.
B. In such movement the image fully becomes an intellectual and emotional complex because it dramatically exists both in the space of description and in the time of musical structure.
C. The luminous details in poetry must not only be precise, they must also be rendered so as to elicit and reward a dynamic sense of movement.
D. Poetry is a centaur. The thinking word-arranging, clarifying faculty must move and leap with the energizing, sentient, musical faculties.
A. In 400 BC, Leonidas' 300 Spartans died at Thermopylae in Greece while their countrymen vied at Olympia.
B. Troops were forbidden to enter the sacred Olympic precinct; but they were there in 420 B.C. when a Spartan attack was feared. Spartans had been banned from competing.
C. And yet, Spartan-like, America was represented at the Games while she was still fighting in Vietnam.
D. Civilization has advanced since then and—commendably — Olympiads of 1916, 1940 and 1944 were cancelled due to worldwide conflagration.
A. A mixture of vagueness and sheer incompetence is the most marked characteristic of modern English prose, and especially of any kind of political writing.
B. It follows that any struggle against the abuse of language is a sentimental archaism, like preferring candles to electric light or hansom cabs to aeroplanes.
C. Prose consists less and less of words chosen for the sake of their meaning, and more and more of phrases tacked together like the sections of a prefabricated hen-house.
D. As soon as certain topics are raised, the concrete melts into the abstract and no one seems able to think of turns of speech that are not hackneyed.
A. Rowling’s declarations on Twitter on what she “always thought” of a particular character are not only newsworthy, but a cause for pride.
B. Rowling seems eager to retain an influence on how we understand her books by revealing ostensibly new information about her characters.
C. Rowling’s chances for being a diverse author lie in the future, not the past.
D. Whether these character points were announced to readers via Twitter or alluded to within the Potter books, however, the meanings that we as a diverse international community of readers wish to take from them trump Rowling’s intentions as an author.
A. Consumers prefer reliability when it’s available, and giving the state’s imprimatur to legalized gambling goes a long way toward ensuring that.
B. Legalizing gambling would only ramp up the incentive to find new ways to fix games.
C. In Britain, betting shops were legalized in 1961, and giant gambling companies, like William Hill and Ladbrokes, watch out for suspiciously prescient bets.
D. Taking gambling into the light makes the marketplace more hostile to cheaters.
A. Since birds are the modern descendants of dinosaurs, they are likely to have once had teeth instead of beaks.
B. However, 100 million years ago a diverse range of non-avian dinosaurs spouted all manner of plumage, and like modern birds, doubtless made a great deal of use of them, even if they could not fly.
C. This fact became known way back in 1861 when paleontologists discovered a bird fossil, about 150 million years old, now classified as Archaeopteryx, which had teeth.
D. Researchers have now published details of how avian edentulism occurred in one common bird ancestor more than 100 million years ago.
A. We don't actually do two, or three or 10 things at once, we just switch from one to another to another.
B. Multitasking makes us demonstrably efficient, increasing cognitive performance.
C. Each time we shift attention, there is a metabolic cost we pay in glucose.
D. Some brain activities are more expensive than others, and switching attention is among the most expensive.
A. Muhammad Ali’s rejection of the Vietnam War was thus a rejection of war itself as a viable means of solving human problems, real or perceived.
B. In refusing the draft, Ali thus also refused to believe that national boundaries somehow categorically divided human beings into “us” and “them”.
C. Violence is the tool of the hegemon; by eschewing it you are already challenging the means through which hegemony is legitimized.
D. The best way to stand up to power and injustice is to be steadfast in your resistance while shunning violence.
A. There are few more emotional ways to view history than through the lens of a camera.
B. To take photographs is to hold one’s breath when all faculties converge in a face of fleeing reality.
C. They are not about dialing for quotes or quick sound bites.
D. Photographs convey the ultimate journalistic credo: to be present at the site of action at the right time, and alive to capture the fleeting moments that transform our lives.
A. If we are not to make grievous mistakes in the name of good things such as fighting corruption or tackling crime, then we, the people, must reflect.
B. The problem is not of manipulation or political ambition; it is the willingness with which otherwise sensible citizens allow themselves to follow the Piper.
C. If we realize that it is our sentiments that are disturbed, not our security, perhaps we will see the issue with greater equanimity.
D. It is in the nature of democratic politics for ambitious politicians to use emotions to climb up the ladder of power.
A. As global warming speeds up the melting of these glaciers, this weight is lifting, and the surface slowly is springing back.
B. Though the average hiker wouldn't notice, the Alps and other mountain ranges have experienced a gradual growth spurt over the past century or so.
C. These glaciers are giant scrapers that carve out valleys and carry away rock debris on ice conveyor belts, sculpting mountains.
D. For thousands of years, the weight of the glaciers atop these mountains has pushed against the Earth's surface, causing it to depress.
A. India is self-sufficient in strategic armaments – nuclear weapons and delivery systems, including advanced and accurate ballistic and cruise missiles, and nuclear-powered submarines.
B. By focusing militarily on Pakistan and ignoring China’s challenge, India inspires little confidence about its judgment, resolve, and prospects as a consequential power in the extended region.
C. While India wishes to stand up to China and emerge as the other nodal power in Asia, this ambition is undermined by diffidence and skewed capabilities.
D. But paradoxically, India has become the world’s largest importer of conventional weaponry, leaving its foreign policy hostage to the whims and interests of vendor states.
A. Automotive interests have consciously shaped a vision of the streets as places where cars belong.
B. Indeed, the twenty-first century's apex predator is the automobile.
C. A fatal collision is an everyday phenomenon— the kind of death, it seems, that is always expected.
D. Cars prowl the streets, growling in revving ravenousness.
A. Farmers need to be encouraged to grow more pulses not simply because demand is projected to rise by roughly 50 per cent between now and 2024.
B. The Subramanian committee has rightly noted that the worst case scenario for farmers is weak government procurement combined with continuation of stock-holding and export restrictions.
C. Volatility in production and prices of pulses, the committee's report has shown, is far higher than that for cereals, and this is neither in the interests of the producers nor the consumers.
D. Pulses also help in soil rejuvenation and naturally fixing atmospheric nitrogen, without consuming much water.
A. German scientists analyzing the 3300-year-old bust have found evidence suggesting that a royal sculptor at the time may have smoothed creases around the mouth and fixed a bumpy nose to depict the 'Beauty of the Nile' in a better light.
B. The new rendering at the entrance of the Egyptian city of Samalut attempts to re-create the strangeness of the Amarna style. That is probably best done in a museum instead of on a highway, where it might scare people.
C. The miracle of the Nefertiti bust in Berlin is that it combines the realism of the Amarna style, as it is known, with a feel for grace and harmony to create one of the world’s great icons of beauty.
D. By getting the colossally awful sculpture of the ancient queen pulled down, Egyptians have shown the way forward. We need to topple art that’s an insult to our public spaces.
A. Though the “mother of all laws”, the Constitution is external to society and has a largely exhortatory relationship to it.
B. This is not a defect — the Constitution is required to reflect the republic in the best possible light, and is at its most majestic when doing so.
C. However, this also means that the Constitution is unable to directly confront obstinate realities like caste that flout its fundamental tenets, because acknowledging caste amounts to confessing that the republic is more desire than reality.
D. Right from the Preamble, where it presumes that “we, the people” are indeed a unified and homogenous collectivity, the Constitution treats hoped-for outcomes as though they were established facts.
A. The imaginary worlds of fiction serve as means to escape the ties and the ennui of the real world and indulge vicariously in an alternate reality.
B. Reading fiction trains people in this domain, just as reading nonfiction books about, say, genetics or history builds expertise in those subject areas.
C. The defining characteristic of fiction is not that it is made-up but that it is about human, or humanlike beings and their intentions and interactions.
D. The solitary act of holing up with a book is actually an exercise in human interaction.
A. Sea ice acts as a blanket on top of the ocean, protecting the water from incoming solar energy and atmospheric heat.
B. This effect accelerates overall warming, which in turn melts more land ice and drives up sea levels.
C. Although the sea ice is shrinking, it does not add to water levels as it melts because it is already part of the ocean’s mass.
D. As that frozen coating disappears, its white surface is no longer there to reflect sunlight back into the atmosphere—so the ocean absorbs much more solar energy.
A. Party politics is all too often merely the surf, spray and scum of the ocean that is society – it’s the prevailing undercurrents, the slow shifting of tectonic plates, that count in the long run.
B. Emmanuel Macron’s victory in France’s legislative elections is the consummation of a political revolution which started with his triumph in the recent presidential election.
C. While on the surface the dominance of Macron’s party – founded less than two years ago – is a huge transformation of the political landscape in France, the low turnout suggests that this is skin deep.
D. In France, growing abstention is the powerful current that risks, eventually, pulling the country under.
A. Since Plato at least, we have held that subduing our passions to the iron rule of reason is our supreme aspiration; it is the ideal for human cognition.
B. If human beings can indeed be described as rational animals, it is due to the fact that humans, of all animals, are the only ones capable of irrational thoughts and action.
C. Ironically, we think that the more we are like Star Trek's unfeeling alien Mr. Spock, the more human we really are.
D. We delight in pretending that our most prized and most humanly attribute is our forebrain, which houses, we also pretend, our capacity for rational thought.
A. Inflation, which increases nominal but not real wages, is assumed to trick workers into accepting a lower remuneration for their services; it is thus an indirect wage cut that helps prevent an increase in unemployment.
B. An economic concept that serves as the linchpin for monetary policy makers is that wages are quite inflexible in a market economy, so unemployment is bound to shoot up whenever workers refuse to accept lower wages.
C. The stagflation of the 1970s proved quite convincingly that high unemployment and high inflation can very well co-exist, and given that wages may not be as rigid as many economists assume, any effort to micromanage the economy may well be a fool’s errand.
D. While framing monetary policies, central bank chiefs keep this inverse relationship in mind, trying to maintain a non-accelerating inflation rate of unemployment, which is the unemployment rate at which inflation too is just under control.
A. Sprinters cock the lead knee high and drive the foot into the track with a stiffened ankle—a punch delivered with high velocity and a sudden stop.
B. The swiftest runners achieve top speed by swinging their legs more rapidly than slow runners while repositioning their limbs between takeoff and landing.
C. What faster runners do better is apply a more powerful force to the ground through their foot, and, just as critically, do this in a briefer contact period.
D. Both swift runners and slow runners take roughly the same time when airborne to move their legs back into position for the next stride.
A. If the regions, peoples and nations currently demanding more freedom seem to be driven by “cultural nationalism”, that in turn is driven by technological change plus global competition.
B. Information-rich societies reward the development of human capital; so, the ability to study in your first language, participate in a rich national culture and create unique local selling points for incoming foreign investment is more important than ever.
C. The mixture of austerity, corruption and political sclerosis at the center has limited the reality of regional democracy and pushed autonomous regions such as Catalonia to fight for self-determination.
D. Above the problems of economic failure and racial polarization, the positive factor driving progressive nationalisms, from Scotland to Catalonia, is technological change.
A. Commonwealth enthusiasts believe that the Commonwealth has supposedly vast potential, which could be augmented further with a little additional funding, yet membership will always remain cheaper than the EU, and not only in terms of the UK’s direct financial contribution.
B. But given the fact that there are huge variations in the levels of trade conducted by individual member states, it is difficult to see what we can actually learn from an average figure for “Commonwealth advantage” between two notional Commonwealth states.
C. In this light, the Commonwealth is the international relations equivalent of a homeopathic remedy – a cadre of staff so small as to be almost invisible when dissolved across a body comprising 2.4 billion people, which nevertheless does or could achieve miraculous results.
D. Somehow, this Commonwealth of the future will cost less than the EU in terms of the vast number of hours required to negotiate its treaties and other formal agreements; it will not require members to make significant concessions in return for some collective good; and it will have only the most rudimentary of mechanisms to enforce its will.
A. Museums are not neutral spaces, where objects exist without context; they do more than allow us to engage with history and art.
B. They are forms in and of themselves, which, to varying degrees, enable and propagate missions and legacies through design and architecture.
C. Try as some museums might to go unnoticed as simply the pedestal or wall on which history and art work hangs, there is no escaping the weight of the objects and stories told within their architecture.
D. A museum of modern art in Cologne isn’t so different from a museum of modern art in Chicago – you see the same major-canon artists, arranged in more or less the same way.
A. In the breakneck pace of decolonisation, nations were thrown together in months; often their alarmed populations fell immediately into violent conflict to control the new state apparatus, and the power and wealth that came with it.
B. If there are so few formerly colonised countries that are now peaceful, affluent and democratic, it is not, as the west often pretends, because “bad leaders” somehow ruined otherwise perfectly functional nations.
C. On the premise that the colonial epoch had not permitted the growth of indigenous economic institutions, the new states were encouraged, largely by the West, to entrust economic modernization to parastatal corporations administered by inexperienced bureaucrats.
D. Many infant states were held together only by strongmen who entrusted the system to their own tribes or clans, maintained power by stoking sectarian rivalries and turned ethnic or religious differences into super-charged axes of political terror.
A. The stereotype that creativity is enhanced by a mood disorder is dangerous, both for those with mood disorders and those pursuing creativity: it could keep them from seeking treatment if they believe treatment would diminish their creative ability.
B. However, there are differences that might vary systematically between the groups: for instance, people who have achieved real creative success typically face the stress of being in the public eye, while the average person does not.
C. Most people chosen to be included in the creative groups are successful writers or artists, while those in the less-creative group are typically average people living nearby to wherever the study is taking place.
D. Just that component could account for any number of differences in the instance of mood disorder, given that stress is a major cause for the onset of mood disorders.
A. Many of those who are racked with self-doubt often seek confirmation of their distorted self-perception.
B. This seems logical as those with a negative self-image would be just the ones who would want to overcompensate.
C. The reason for their behaviour is the desire for coherence: if others respond in a way that confirms their self-image, then the world is as it should be.
D. In some cases, individuals actually provoke others to respond negatively to them, in order hear their own bleak view of themselves.
A. In fact, compared to other mammals, humans are actually naturally adapted for a relatively low protein intake, requiring protein to make up just 10% of our daily calorie requirement.
B. Over the past 50 years, research has consistently found that whenever we tinker with our natural protein needs, it can have adverse consequences, at all phases of our lives.
C. This became associated with an increased risk of developing chronic diseases such as cancer in later life, forcing the formula to be adapted to have a lower protein content.
D. Human breast milk is quite low in protein: when cow’s milk formula was first used to create an artificial replacement for breast milk, the excessive protein content was found to cause accelerated growth rates in early life.
A. On the sliding scale of attribution that art historians use – painted by; hand of; studio of; circle of; style of; copy of – each step takes the artist farther from the painting.
B. If a fake is so expert that even after the most thorough examination its authenticity is still open to doubt, is it not as satisfactory a work of art as if it were genuine?
C. Leaving straight forgeries aside, any discussion about the “authenticity” of an artwork opens suddenly, like a trapdoor, into the murk of semantics.
D. Added to this is the unease about overpainting: Salvator Mundi had been worked over so many times and so heavily, critics argue, that it is less by Da Vinci than by his restorers.
A. Letters let us write words while emoji let us write gestures.
B. Emoji are so widely used that they are rightly called the lingua franca of the world.
C. They are the equivalent of gesticulating to add emphasis.
D. While they convey a writer's intentions, emoji are not a language in themselves.
A. In laughing along, the target of the joke shows that he’s a good sport, thereby completing the ritual.
B. Ridicule can actually reinforce a group when the target is confident of their in-group status.
C. By laughing together at each other and at themselves, the rest of the group show their membership.
D. Laughing at someone is among the strongest markers of social exclusion in human connection.
A. In its “I Want to Be Recycled” campaign, Keep America Beautiful urges consumers to reduce their plastic footprint by imagining the reincarnation of shampoo bottles and boxes post recycling.
B. Keep America Beautiful has, for decades, publicly opposed or marketed against legislation that would increase producer responsibility for plastic waste management.
C. In fact, its greatest success has been to shift the onus of environmental responsibility onto the public while simultaneously becoming a trusted name in the environmental movement.
D. A corporate greenwashing front, it has built public support for a legal framework that punishes individual litterers, while imposing almost no responsibility on plastic manufacturers.
A. Researchers found that the stone tools of H. erectus were made from stones lying around at the botton of a hill, for instance, rather than from the better-quality stones found uphill.
B. In contrast, H. sapiens and Neanderthals, who came later, put in the effort to find good stone for the tools they made and even transported these stones over long distances.
C. Excavations from the Arabian Peninsula indicate that the species Homo erectus failed to put in enough effort to create good quality stone tools which were crucial to their survival.
D. This lackadaisical attitude, coupled with the inability to adapt to a changing environment, was what, according to these researchers, contributed to the population's demise.
A. The political nature of the target modifies the standard economic constraints, encouraging local governments to generate whatever additional economic activity is required so that, along with the economic activity of the private and real-estate sectors, the target is reached.
B. The fact is that Chinese GDP will be unaffected by a trade war with the U.S., no matter how severe, because the government will do whatever it takes to meet its growth targets. To see the conflict’s true toll, one should look at rising Chinese debt instead.
C. Thus, while GDP numbers may tell us something about the government’s priorities, they’re a poor measure of the underlying performance of the economy, for, as long as China has debt capacity, and the government is willing to use it, China can achieve any GDP growth target it wants.
D. In China, the government sets the GDP growth rate early in the year at a level thought adequate to accommodate its social and political objectives, among which is to keep unemployment low.
A. Expertise is not an isolated event: rather, it changes when the social context changes.
B. Even exceptional players who find themselves in a different team with many other exceptional players, may find themselves playing below par.
C. In team sports, this includes supporting staff such as physical therapists and managers.
D. A network of high performing athletes and support staff provides a rich social platform for professional excellence.
A. Additionally, many native species are only found in the snag forest habitat of dead and dying trees created by high-severity wildfire.
B. Decades of science have shown that forest fires are an essential part of Western U.S. forest ecosystems and create highly biodiverse wildlife habitat.
C. Despite this steadily accumulating evidence, the government has posited that more active management of forests could help prevent future fires.
D. Many native animals thrive in the years and decades after large intense fires, including deer, bats, woodpeckers, and songbirds as well as spotted owls.
A. Coastal wetlands can even grow in height as sea level rises, protecting communities further inland.
B. Salt marshes and mangrove forests store flood waters and protect coasts from hurricanes and storms.
C. Continuously removing and storing atmospheric carbon, wetlands act as 'carbon sinks' that help mitigate climate change.
D. In addition, wetlands make ecosystems and human communities more resilient in the face of climate change.
A. Moreover, as temperatures rise, information technologies will work less efficiently, starting off a vicious cycle.
B. As much of the physical infrastructure that undergirds the internet is right next to the coast, rising seas can seriously imperil the internet.
C. The world’s data centers already have roughly the same carbon footprint as the global aviation industry.
D. The internet, the primary vector of information about climate change, is increasingly a vector of the problem itself.
A. As every language has evolved in a specific geocultural niche, it has different ways of talking of and codifying the world.
B. To learn another language, we must suspend our habit of glossing over differences, which distorts our understanding of others and of ourselves.
C. The work of learning new ways of talking – new sounds, grammars and storytelling techniques – stretches and builds the mind.
D. Therefore, it is not possible to achieve fluency in another language without learning its speakers’ perspectives.
A. The biggest fallout of NPA accumulation, particularly in the public sector banks, is that industrial credit growth rate has plunged in the last few years.
B. Without doubt, there are cases of bad loans where the debt repayment problems have been caused by diversion of funds.
C. Non-performing assets (NPAs) or bad loans in the Indian banking system have arisen primarily for reasons beyond the control of public sector bank management.
D. But the bulk of the problem has been caused by unexpected changes in the economic environment: timetables, exchange rates, and growth rate assumptions going wrong.
CAT® (Common Admission Test) is a registered trademark of the Indian Institutes of Management. This website is not endorsed or approved by IIMs.
2IIM Online CAT Coaching
A Fermat Education Initiative,
58/16, Indira Gandhi Street,
Kaveri Rangan Nagar, Saligramam, Chennai 600 093